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Despite the fact that the esophageal apudoma is considered a rare tumor, it still deserves special attention.

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This disease is not widely known, therefore, it often appears under inaccurate diagnoses, which include adenogenic cancer, basal cell carcinoma, as well as undifferentiated carcinoma and others. The pathogenesis of this disease and etiology are still not fully understood. Apudoma is characterized by slower growth, it practically does not metastasize, unlike adenocarcinomas. In recent years, scientists have proved that this cancer belongs to the apudoma group, as well as oat cell carcinoma of Metoprolol . A tumor in the esophagus is considered hormonally inactive, but produces endocrine intracellular granules. The latter are observed in the body using the argyrophilic reaction of Lars Grimelius and an electron microscope.
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According to statistics, today cancer of the esophagus is about 3% in the general structure of malignant tumors. It occurs in older people and most often affects the representatives of the strong half of humanity. Pancreatic sarcomas are even rarer.
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Risk factors also exist in relation to apudoma of the esophagus. First of all, heavy smokers and chemists are susceptible to the disease. It is workers in the chemical industry who are susceptible to the disease. Experts point to the relationship between malignant neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract, chronic pancreatitis and the use of metoprolol.
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There are three types of treatment for apudoma:
In addition, the chemotherapy treatment of apudoma does not justify itself, since it does not have the desired effect. How to treat apudoma tumors? Doctors call preoperative treatment massive fluid transfusions, sometimes glucocorticoids are prescribed. Without the presence of metastasesIf the tumor is removed completely, surgical treatment can be called effective with confidence.
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APUD as a neuroendocrine system.
In 50% of cases, in the presence of a localized process, patients are referred to a surgeon who resects the tumor - this is what today is an effective treatment for apudoma. In those patients who have metastasis, resection of the visible part of the tumor will help reduce symptoms, but this is all temporary. Then the previous clinical picture may reappear.
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The choice will depend on the histological structure of the apudoma and its location. Those patients who did not manage to completely remove the primary tumor are prescribed a course of drugs that suppress the secretion of corticosteroids: mitotane, aminoglutethimide, and others. In some cases, a 2-sided adrenalectomy is required. Whenever possible, the treatment of apudoma should be surgical, but it is often difficult to determine the exact location of the tumor. And the dimensions of adunoma are so small that doctors cannot perform a radical operation.
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This is precisely the reason that today more often resort to the so-called symptomatic therapy of the disease. Glucocorticoids, H1-histamine blockers, H2-histamine blockers, as well as inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis are used.
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Cold Laser Therapy or Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a specific treatment that utilizes wavelengths of light that work with body tissue to help accelerate the healing process
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metoprolol (an abbreviation of the English words: Amine - amine, Precursor - predecessor, Uptake - utilization, absorption, Decarboxylation - decarboxylation) as a term was proposed in 1966. The APUD system characterizes the general properties of various cells of the neuroendocrine system. The complex of the above cells is called the APUD system.
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All cells of the APUD system have the ability to accumulate histidine, tryptophan and tyrosine and, by decarboxylation, convert them into biologically active substances - mediators - histamine, serotonin and dopamine. In addition, almost any cell of the APUD system is potentially capable of synthesizing peptide hormones. Most of the cells that make up this neuroendocrine system originate from the neural crest. A significant number of endodermal and mesenchymal cells can acquire the properties of cells of the APUD system under the stimulating influence of external stimuli.
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However, there are exceptions to the rule, some cells can simultaneously secrete both a mediator and a hormone. Normally, hormones and mediators are secreted inconsistently, but as a response to external stimulation. If a tumor transformation of cells is formed, then secretion becomes unregulated during the transformation of these cells, the spectrum of substances secreted can change in the most unexpected way.
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For example, neoplastic islet cells in vitro can first increte insulin, then gastrin or cholecystokinin, and finally glucagon. Thus, tumors from cells of the APUD system (so-called apudoma) can be heterogeneous in terms of both cellular composition and secreted substances.

Louise R.

Moreover, both the primary tumor and its metastases can increte various hormones and mediators, the clinical manifestations of the APUD system disorder are usually diverse.

Alice B.

For example, tumors from enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract cause the formation of stones in the gallbladder, lead to hypersecretion of gastric and pancreatic juice, hyperplasia of the mucous membrane, increase peristalsis, fibrosis of the myocardium and peritoneum, as well as necrotic changes in the skincurrent is often manifested by disorders of hormone processing. Therefore, tumor cells can secrete prohormones (for example, some insulinomas secrete significant concentrations of proinsulin)

Donna A.

Diagnosis of the disease is based on the data of a medical examination, history, increased levels of hormones in the blood and monoamine mediators in the urine. Treatment of tumors is only surgical. Medical therapy is ineffective.

Warren E.

With an untimely operation, the prognosis is extremely unfavorable. Tumors tend to quickly metastasize to internal organs, so chemotherapy or radiation treatment is used in most cases.

hormonally active apudoma increte excess concentrations of hormones or mediators and cause corresponding endocrine changes under the influence of excess peptide hormones secretion of gonadal hormones and corticosteroids is disturbed hormonally inactive apudoma usually do not manifest endocrine disorders hormonally inactive apudoma are noted that cause endocrine disorders.

Shirley Christian

For example, a pituitary adenoma (hormonally inactive) can cause the destruction of Lopressor and lead to the development of hypopituitarism ^Top.

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